1 Samuel 18


This chapter shows us God?s continued ordering of events to bring David to the throne over His people, Israel. Though Saul starts to see David as a threat to his throne, and seeks to dispose of David, God uses Saul?s evil intentions to prepare David for what lies ahead for him.

All of those daily events that take place in our lives are ordered by the Lord to prepare us for the future He has for us.

As God?s Spirit leaves the house of Saul, and moves to the house of David, the events open with Jonathan?s love for David, and then the account of Saul?s jealousy is given.

V. 1, with the head of the Philistine in his hand, David was brought before King Saul. Jonathan was there also, and seeing the boldness of David for the Lord, his heart was united with David?s. Jonathan and David were about the same age, and they both had the boldness of faith in Israel?s God?Jonathan and his armour bearer had charged up the hill against the Philistines, confident the Lord had given them the victory. Jonathan had taken little interest in David as a musician, but he had great interest in David?s boldness and modesty.

Of course, the Lord is the One who knit their hearts together, for David needed someone in Saul?s household to keep him informed of Saul?s evil intentions against him. Also, Jonathan?s love would help strengthen David to bear the enmity and persecution of the king when the king was plagued by the evil spirit. (Keil)

Note that no one had more to fear from David than did Jonathan, for Jonathan was next in line for the throne, but God united their hearts. And Jonathan saw no threat from David. In fact, Jonathan latter confessed that he knew the Lord had given the throne to David, and he rejoiced for David:

None had so much reason to dislike David as Jonathan had, because he was to put him by the crown, yet none regards him more. Those that are governed in their love by principles of wisdom and grace will not suffer their affections to be alienated by any secular regards or considerations: the greater thoughts will swallow up and overrule the less. (MH)

V. 2, David is taken to serve the king, according to Samuel?s words about what would happen when the people chose a king over the Lord?He will take your sons, and appoint them for himself..., 8:11.

Vv. 3, 4, Jonathan and David made a covenant, and Jonathan gave David his robe, garments, and even his weapons of war. Such covenants of brotherhood are frequent in the east (JFB), but we Westerners do not understand things like this.

As a pledge of his dear love, and for a symbol, that now all things were common betwixt them, as it useth to be betwixt dearest friends, and that he would have David looked upon as his Alter Ego. (Trapp.)

Note that Jonathan, the king?s son, instigated the covenant; and he is the one who wanted all things in common. David had nothing at this point, being a poor shepherd.

To receive any part of the dress which had been worn by a sovereign, or his eldest son and heir, is deemed, in the East, the highest honor which can be conferred on a subject (see JFB on "Es 6:8"). The girdle, being connected with the sword and the bow, may be considered as being part of the military dress, and great value is attached to it in the East. (JFB)

Note that this new dress separated David from whatever contempt that might have remained for his former menial occupation with the few sheep he had been watching in the wilderness?he was still clothed in his shepherd?s garments, being sent by his father from the wilderness to the field of battle; he had his shepherd?s bag into which he had placed the five stones. He was now dressed in the appeal of the first born king?s son.


First, as was David, we must be ready to enter into battle at any moment:

12 For the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous, and his ears are open unto their prayers: but the face of the Lord is against them that do evil. 13 And who is he that will harm you, if ye be followers of that which is good? 14 But and if ye suffer for righteousness? sake, happy are ye: and be not afraid of their terror, neither be troubled; 15 But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear: (1 Peter 3.)

Are we familiar enough with our weapons of warfare that we can enter into battle at a moment?s notice?

Second, as did Jonathan with David, the Son of the King (actually, the King of Glory Himself) instigated an everlasting covenant with the elect.

Third, the Son is the one who wanted all things in common, as we are joint heirs with Him. (Rom. 8:17.)

Fourth, the elect are nothing but poor, poverty stricken sinners, and they are now clothed in Christ?s righteousness. Though Jonathan did not put on himself David?s poor shepherd?s garments, Christ did take our sins upon Himself.

The wonder of it all!!

Note that Saul?s cloths did not fit David, but Jonathan?s did, and David was glad to ware them.

V. 5, David did whatsoever Saul told him to do. David was as ?dutiful as he was bold and courageous. Those that hope to rule must first learn to obey.? (MH)

Note that David?s relationship with his father, Jessie, was evident in his relationship with the king?willingly obedient. The child?s relationship in his home will be evident in his relationship in the world. If he is dutiful and respectful in the home, he will be in the world. It is in the home one learns the lessons of life that he will then use the rest of his life. This is the reason fathers must be careful in what they say and do in the homes; moreover, the destruction of the family, particularly the fathers, is destruction of the social order. There have been studies showing that one of the chief reasons for excelling in higher learning, doctors, engineers, &c., is attributed to close family ties. And it seems that non-Americans have those close ties, Asians particularly.

David behaved himself wisely, and was thus exalted in the eyes of the people.

I will behave myself wisely in a perfect way. O when wilt thou come unto me? I will walk within my house with a perfect heart. (Ps. 101:2)

Those who walk within their homes with a perfect heart will act wisely in public. And the proper way to exalt one?s self is acting wisely (Scripturally) in all things.

David was given some high post in the army, and at his young age, became a commander within the army. However, Abner was the general who was in overall control.

David was accepted by all who saw him. He was virtuous, and all who saw him were attracted to him.

And it was certainly a great instance of the power of God?s grace in David that he was able to bear all this respect and honour flowing in upon him on a sudden without being lifted up above measure. Those that climb so fast have need of good heads and good hearts. It is more difficult to know how to abound than how to be abased. (MH)

David was even respected by Saul?s servants, who should have been envious as a general rule.

Psalms 1, and the Lord God prospered David in all he did.


Vv. 6-11

V. 6, we are not told how long the battle in which Goliath was killed continued. It may have been a few days or a few weeks. But when the victorious army returned, the women, who were normally greatly abused when their army lost, met the men with music, song and dance. They celebrated the victory.

V. 7, though they sang praises to Saul, they had greater praise for David, for David was the hero of the battle. And they were right. King Saul should have been leading the army into the battle, but he sat back in powerless fear of Goliath while a shepherd boy, straight out of the wilderness, was given this great victory, which was an added mark of Saul?s rejection as king. (Keil) Saul?s fear was justified, for he had rejected the clear command-word of God twice. (See ch. 15.)

Fear of man results when one does not fear God, and the fear of God starts by departing from the evil of rejecting His word.

Job 28:28 And unto man he said, Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding.
Psalms 34:7 The angel of the LORD encampeth round about them that fear him, and delivereth them.
Psalms 118:6 The LORD is on my side; I will not fear: what can man do unto me?
Psalms 118:6 The LORD is on my side; I will not fear: what can man do unto me? 28 Then shall they call upon me, but I will not answer; they shall seek me early, but they shall not find me:
Proverbs 1:29 For that they hated knowledge, and did not choose the fear of the LORD: 30 They would none of my counsel: they despised all my reproof. 31 Therefore shall they eat of the fruit of their own way, and be filled with their own devices. 32 For the turning away of the simple shall slay them, and the prosperity of fools shall destroy them.
Proverbs 14:26 In the fear of the LORD is strong confidence: and his children shall have a place of refuge.
Proverbs 29:25 The fear of man bringeth a snare: but whoso putteth his trust in the LORD shall be safe.
Psalms 118:6 The LORD is on my side; I will not fear: what can man do unto me?
Proverbs 29:25 The fear of man bringeth a snare: but whoso putteth his trust in the LORD shall be safe.
Luke 12:5 But I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear: Fear him, which after he hath killed hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, Fear him.
Hebrews 13:5 Let your conversation be without covetousness; and be content with such things as ye have: for he hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee. 6 So that we may boldly say, The Lord is my helper, and I will not fear what man shall do unto me.

Though given a double opportunity, Saul both times refused to depart from the evil of going his own way, chapter 15. And thus he was not only fearful of what men could do to him, but he lost his kingdom to a shepherd boy.

And David did kill his ten thousands, for it was his victory that defeated all of the Philistine army?they fled in fear.

V. 8, Saul was very furious because the women attributed the greater victory to David. Yet the women attributed more to Saul than he deserved?he allowed the Philistine to vaunt himself for 40 days while he cowered in fear. They attributed less to David than he deserved, and more than David wanted. (Chrysostom, pointed out by Trapp.)

For jealousy is the rage of a man: therefore he will not spare in the day of vengeance. (Proverbs 6:34)

Envy now took control of Saul, and motivated many years worth of effort against David.

V. 9, Saul now saw David as a threat to the kingdom, and eyed David with great suspicion from then on. He starts seeking ways to do away with David.

Observe some points here:

1) what is in the heart will come out. The Lord has a way of bringing about circumstances that will reveal our heart to ourselves and for the whole world to see. Thus we should work at keeping our heart right before God and man.

2) Saul Rejected the Word of The Lord.

Saul had been clearly told three times that the Lord rejected him, and why he was rejected, 13:14, 15:23 (Because thou hast rejected the word of the LORD, he hath also rejected thee from being king.) & 26.

My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge: because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me: seeing thou hast forgotten the law of thy God, I will also forget thy children. (Hosea 4:6.)

Saul rejected the law of God, so God rejected him. And Saul?s hardness only increased his madness and anger with David. The rest of the book of 1 Samuel is a sad account of Saul?s increasing madness, and of God replacing Saul with David. As the Lord carries out His threat against Saul, removing the kingdom from him, rather than Saul confronting the real reason for losing the kingdom, he tries to kill the one to whom the Lord is giving it.

How like human nature ? rather than deal with the sins that brings about our problem, we try to deal with the problem itself. And the more we try to correct the problem without dealing with the cause of the problem, the worse the situation becomes.


A person, a professed Christian, is unable to get ahead in his occupation, and he has been told several times that the reason is that he is not where he should be with the Lord. He does not tithe nor spend any consistent time with the Lord in the word nor in prayer. Rather than do what he knows he should do, he blames his employer or his circumstances for his being held back.

More on the national scene: This nation is going down the tubes, and Scripture is clear that the reason is that God?s people have departed from God?s law-word. Yet the general thought seems to be that the reason we are being destroyed is because the wicked are in control, and we do not have enough knowledge about wickedness in high places. (Many make a good living ?exposing? evil in high places.) But the problem is as old as time itself, and is stated three times with Saul ? knowing what to do from God?s word and refusing to do it brings about destruction.

Rather than remembering Samuel?s words to him and acting to correct the situation in his own heart, Saul eyed David from that day and forward.

There is another point here that must not be overlooked, and that is the definition of the sin that condemns a person:

18 He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. 36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him. (John 3.)

Saul was guilty of the sin of unbelief, as are all who are everlastingly condemned.

Vv. 10, 11, Saul?s discontent and envy gave place to the devil, and the devil had free reign in and through Saul. The next day, the evil spirit from God returned upon Saul, and he prophesied in the midst of the house.


1) To prophesy under the influence of divine spirit, or of false prophets.

TO CAUSE TO BABBLE UP, hece to pour forth words abundantly, as is done by those who speak with ardour or divine emotion of mind. ... (3) to be mad, or rather to act as if mad, 1 Sam. 18:10. ... (Gesenius? Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament, 525-526. Baker Book House.)

[To prophecy] does not mean to prophesy in this instance, but ?to rave.? This use of the word is founded upon the ecstatic utterances, in which the supernatural influences of the Spirit of God manifested itself in the prophets (see at ch. x. 5). (Keil)

Prophecy, or ecstatic speech, is NOT necessarily a sign that one is under the Godly influence.

And it may seem probable that Saul did now speak of Divine things politicly, that thereby he might lull David asleep, and kill him before he suspected any danger. (Poole.)

And the enemy of the Son of David has been doing this against His people every since?using smooth words, both religious and political, to lull them asleep, so he can kill them before they suspect any danger.

2) David had delivered the kingdom out of the hands of the Philistines. But rather than honour David, Saul sought to kill him. The spirit of madness from the Lord caused Saul to desire to kill the innocent, 18:11.

A) the spirit of madness was a result of Saul?s rejection of the word of the Lord. And the innocent today are being killed as the spirit of madness runs amuck in our society because it has rejected the word of the Lord?abortion. (I find it strange that the group who wants to protect the right to kill an unborn child also wants to stop killing those who deserve to be killed, capital punishment.)

B) note the order: Saul was very angry, furious, that the women sang greater praises to David than to himself, then the Lord returned the evil spirit back to him, and then he sought to kill David.

26 Be ye angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon your wrath: 27 Neither give place to the devil. (Ephesians 4.)

Saul slept with his anger, and the next day, the evil spirit from God came back. Saul gave place to the devil ? first, by rejecting the word of the Lord, and then by keeping his wrath towards David. And thus he moved to kill the one of whom he was jealous. Those with a devilish spirit return evil for good ? a javelin being in his hand, Saul sought to kill David with it. He probably held the javelin as a scepter, which was not unusual for oriental kings. And thus he jabbed twice at David, missing both times. (Keil) However, the text says cast, that is, threw the javelin twice at David.

Many years later, the Son of David avoided the best efforts of wicked men to kill Him.

C) though David was the ?hero? and greatly exalted in everyone?s eyes except Saul?s, he did not consider himself too good to return and play music to sooth Saul?s troubled spirit.

D) Saul attempted twice to kill David, but God?s providence spared him. At this point, David could have killed the king in self-defense, and the people probably would have supported him. However, he made no effort to return force with force, but moved out of the way. He was not a coward, for he had just slain Goliath; rather, he was a man after God?s own heart, and did his best to live peaceably with all men if possible.

E) David could have left Saul?s presence after the first attempt on his life, but he returned to let Saul try again. David was determined to remain where the Lord had him at this time, though he had to watch for his life.

Later, however, David did leave the presence of Saul, when Saul was making elaborate plots against David.

A word to the wise ? though we must tolerate wicked people who are not our friends, and who are out to harm us, we had best remain where the Lord has us. The Lord will protect us if we stay where He has us, and if we respond to the actions in a godly manner, as David did.


Saul uses every underhanded means he can think of to get rid of David.

V. 12, Saul?s fear was that David would continue to be exalted, and he would end up with the kingdom. And the more he saw God?s hand of blessing and protection upon David and less upon himself, the more he feared David. Saul had every cause to be insecure in his position as king, for he had turned his back upon the one who made him king, the Lord God almighty.

Those that design ill against others are commonly willing to have it thought that others design ill against them. (MH)

Envy is destructive. (Trapp)

Wisely in all his ways... Rather than gather together a rebellion against the king as the king made life miserable for him, David did what he was told without complaint, and left it up to the Lord to work out the details of His promises.

14 Do all things without murmurings and disputings: 15 That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world; (Philippians 2.)

However blind fortune may seem to favour fools, God will own and bless those that behave themselves wisely. (MH)

In our society today, it seems that evil is greatly rewarded, and evil workers will never have to face the results of their wicked ways.

V. 13, Saul?s two thwarted attempts on David?s life show Saul that the Lord had departed from him, and was now with David. So Saul does some things to try to destroy David without his having to personally do it.

Saul appointed David his captain over a thousand. The exaltation of David was not to honour David, but out of envy, hoping David would be killed in battle, and Saul would not have to do it himself, v. 17.

But David acted wisely against Saul?s best efforts, and as he went out and came in from battle, the people loved him as they saw his actions and attitude. (Do we want people to love and respect us? Act wisely as we fight the Lord?s battles.)

Saul removed him from him...

First, Saul was no longer cheered by the sight of David; rather, he was agitated.

Second, Saul hoped that David would be killed in a battle.

Third, Saul feared David would take his throne.

V. 14, God turned all of Saul?s devices upon himself, and to David?s advantage. (Poole)

V. 17, the next thing Saul did was offer his eldest daughter to David, if David would be busy in battle, and fight the Lord?s battles. Saul hoped that sooner or latter the Philistines would kill David. Of course, Saul already owed his daughter to David for the victory over Goliath, but he had not fulfilled his promise, nor did David press him to keep his word.

We should be very suspicious of those who fail to keep their word. (Carol worked very hard at keeping her word, and thus taught the girls to keep their word.)

Mine elder daughter Merab. ?Love is pretended, but mischief purposed.? (Trapp) How many times has love been faked in order to accomplish a selfish goal?

Implied here is that Mriab did not want anything to do with David, for we are told that her sister did. Mriab was the oldest girl, so she may have saw David as a threat to her father. She was given to a man of whom we know nothing about. Though it seems that women were treated as property in the Old Testament, we do not see them forced to marry anyone.

Fight the Lord?s battles... Saul used ?religion? to cover his evil intentions against David. How many times has ?religion? been used to accomplish selfish goals? ?Religion? is commonly used to cover evil intentions, primarily efforts to gain acclaim from other Christians and worldly goods.

Let not my hand be upon him, but his intent was to have him killed

The words of his mouth were smoother than butter, but war was in his heart: his words were softer than oil, yet were they drawn swords. (Psalms 55:21.)

Note that David had Uriah killed in battle, the same as Saul was trying to do to him. How sad that David was able to successfully do to Uriah what Saul could not do to David?have him killed in battle. However, it was God who protected David, while the same God allowed Uriah to be killed!! The Lord told David that though Uriah was killed in battle, David was the one guilty of the murder.

The Lord sees the motives of the heart, and He judges accordingly.

V. 18, David had honest humility in not demanding the payment promised by Saul for killing Goliath, and he shows it by his words here, Who am I...? This was Saul?s attitude at the beginning when Samuel anointed him?Who am I that I should be king?

Being a poor man, David saw no way he could purchase a king?s daughter; he could not raise such a dowery, said to be three years pay of the man.

David displayed this who am I attitude again in v. 23. It was this attitude that kept him in check when Saul gave Merab to another.

As Christians, our attitude should be who am I that the King should make us part of His family? (1 Jn. 3:1.) With this attitude, we should be thankful for whatever comes our way, for whatever we have is far better than we deserve. (Philip. 4:11, Heb. 13:5, 1 Thes. 5:18.)

Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord, and he shall lift you up. (James 4:10.)
Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time: (1 Peter 5:6.)

V. 19, but Saul backed out of his word again, and gave the daughter to another man, Adriel. Adriel is only mentioned here, so evidently he was an unimportant man in Israel. It seems that Saul did this to see if he could provoke David to anger, so David would make a mistake for all to see. But David had control of his spirit, and behaved himself wisely.

Note: It is unreasonable to expect the unsaved or those ?crossways? with the Lord to fulfill their word. To them, words are only a means of accomplishing their personal desires. Nor is it unreasonable to expect them to use whatever means possible to destroy whom they perceive as an enemy. I have found Saul?s actions all too common among professed Christians.

Trapp points out that rather than get stirred up over Saul?s public humiliation of himself, David left it in the Lord?s hands. He latter had to hang Merab?s five sons by Adriel to make peace with the Lord for the Gibeonites. (2 Sam. 21:8.)

This was an act of great injustice and perfidiousness; and accordingly this marriage was accursed by God, and the children begotten in it were by God?s appointment cut off, #2Sa 21$. (Poole)

V. 20, however, Michal, Saul?s daughter, loved David, which, for selfish reasons, pleased Saul.

V. 21, evidently, Michal was a problem daughter, for Saul sought to persuade David to marry her, hoping she would be a snare to him. The tone of Saul?s words tells us that he felt Michal would be so heavy against David that he would lose his concentration in battle, and the Philistines would be able to kill him. But in chapter 19, Michal sided with her husband against her father. We get some idea of her personality in 2 Samuel 6:14, where Michal rebuked her husband David for humbling himself in public before the Lord:

14 And David danced before the LORD with all his might; and David was girded with a linen ephod. 15 So David and all the house of Israel brought up the ark of the LORD with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet. 16 And as the ark of the LORD came into the city of David, Michal Saul?s daughter looked through a window, and saw king David leaping and dancing before the LORD; and she despised him in her heart. 17 And they brought in the ark of the LORD, and set it in his place, in the midst of the tabernacle that David had pitched for it: and David offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the LORD. 18 And as soon as David had made an end of offering burnt offerings and peace offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the LORD of hosts. 19 And he dealt among all the people, even among the whole multitude of Israel, as well to the women as men, to every one a cake of bread, and a good piece of flesh, and a flagon of wine. So all the people departed every one to his house. 20 ? Then David returned to bless his household. And Michal the daughter of Saul came out to meet David, and said, How glorious was the king of Israel to day, who uncovered himself to day in the eyes of the handmaids of his servants, as one of the vain fellows shamelessly uncovereth himself! 21 And David said unto Michal, It was before the LORD, which chose me before thy father, and before all his house, to appoint me ruler over the people of the LORD, over Israel: therefore will I play before the LORD. 22 And I will yet be more vile than thus, and will be base in mine own sight: and of the maidservants which thou hast spoken of, of them shall I be had in honour. 23 Therefore Michal the daughter of Saul had no child unto the day of her death.

Evidently, Michal was very rebellious against proper authority, so Saul was glad to get her out of his house. And besides, she would undermine David, his enemy. Thus he could ?kill two birds with one stone.?

Vv. 22-24, Saul had his servants work in the background to persuade David to ask for Michal. In other words, the servants were to speak as though they were speaking for themselves. David protested that he did not have the dowery to pay for a wife, let alone a king?s daughter. And the servants reported back to the king.

Vv. 25, 26, the king sent word back to David that an hundred foreskins of the Philistines was all the dowery he wanted. But he said this hoping to kill David by the hands of the Philistines.

Saul did not say heads, but foreskins.

First, foreskins would have been much harder to gather than heads.
Second, foreskins would have stirred up the Philistines against David much more than heads.
Third, foreskins would speak against the fertility gods served by the pagans.

Thus Saul made it as difficult as possible for David, hoping time and again that the Philistines would take care of his ?problem.?

V. 27, the Lord?s battles... Saul used ?religion? to cover his evil intentions against David. V. 25, the king?s enemies... Saul used ?patriotism? to cover his evil intentions.

Saul tried everything to do away with who he saw as a threat to his throne.

V. 27, David took his men and killed two hundred Philistines, and presented double dowery to the king for his daughter, showing his love for her. (Poole)

Because of his love for her, Shechem promised any dowry for Dinah, Jacob?s daughter. The brothers conspired against Shechem and his people, and used this promise to destroy the city and spoil the people. The girl should have been given to him, but the brothers were as treacherous as Saul ever dreamed of being. (Gen. 34:11ff.)

Vv. 28, 29, David?s easy victory over an enemy who had plagued Saul so badly, the Philistines, again confirmed that the Lord was with David, and Saul was even more afraid of David.

And there was another thing that troubled Saul?Michal loved David. Evidently, at this time, Michal was not the snare to David Saul had hoped she would be.

As time proceeded, Saul became more fearful that David would replace him, and marriage to his daughter made David that much closer to fulfilling Saul?s fear.

V. 30, the Philistines sought many battles, and Saul, hoping the Philistines would kill David, sent him to all the battles. However, David behaved himself more wisely than all the servants of Saul, and his name became even more famous in Israel.

Glory fled from Saul who followed it; but followed David who fled from it. (Trapp.)

Saul?s fear and hatred increase while David?s glory increases. (Poole)

1) We are told 4 times, vv. 5, 14, 15, 30, that David behaved himself wisely. David himself defines what it means to behave wisely:

Psalms 101:1 ? <<A Psalm of David.>> I will sing of mercy and judgment: unto thee, O LORD, will I sing. 2 I will behave myself wisely in a perfect way. O when wilt thou come unto me? I will walk within my house with a perfect heart. 3 I will set no wicked thing before mine eyes: I hate the work of them that turn aside; it shall not cleave to me. 4 A froward heart shall depart from me: I will not know a wicked person. 5 Whoso privily slandereth his neighbour, him will I cut off: him that hath an high look and a proud heart will not I suffer. 6 Mine eyes shall be upon the faithful of the land, that they may dwell with me: he that walketh in a perfect way, he shall serve me. 7 He that worketh deceit shall not dwell within my house: he that telleth lies shall not tarry in my sight. 8 I will early destroy all the wicked of the land; that I may cut off all wicked doers from the city of the LORD.

(See my study of Ps 101, which I put together here, but removed to a separate file. It defines what David meant by wisely.)

2) v. . 9, Saul eyed David from that day forward.
V. 12, David twice avoided Saul?s effort to kill him, and Saul saw that the Lord was with David, and Saul was afraid of David.
V. 15, David did not get lifted up with pride; rather, he behaved himself wisely as he was exalted a little at a time; Saul saw the Lord was with him, and Saul was afraid of him.
Vv. 27, 28, Saul saw that the Lord was with David, and Saul was yet the more afraid of David, and became David?s enemy continually.

Saul was fearful of what a man could do to him and his family, but he was totally unconcerned about what the Lord could do to him and his family.

13 Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man. 14 For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil. (Ecclesiates 13:13.)

For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind. (2 Tim. 1:7.)

3) thee more times Saul attempted to do to destroy David, the wiser David acted. The more wisely David acted, the more Saul realized God was with him, and the more fearful Saul became of David, v. 15.

Men think the way to be feared is to hector and threaten, which makes them feared by fools only, but despised by the wise and good; whereas the way to be both feared and loved, feared by those to whom we would wish to be a terror and loved by those to whom we would wish to be a delight, is to behave ourselves wisely. (MH)

4) again, note the hardness of sin ? rather than Saul trying to make things right with the Lord, he tries to do away with his rival, which will be the theme of the rest of Saul?s life. What a sad way of living one?s life?trying to destroy someone who is perceived as a threat.

And the more Saul tried to destroy David, the harder Saul became, and the wiser David acted.

5) at every turn, David shows Saul that he is no threat to the throne, but Saul could not see it. His sin had him blinded to truth of what was going on around him.

6) Saul?s every evil effort against David for David?s hurt was turned into good for David:

A) Saul sought to use the Philistines against David, so he continually sent David into battle. But God delivered David from the sword, and his victories exalted him in the people?s eyes.

B) the daughter Saul sought to use against David helped legitimize David?s later claim to the throne.

And thus we see that even the wrath of evil men serves God?s purpose.

Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee: the remainder of wrath shalt thou restrain. (Psalms 76:10.)

Ver. 10. Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee. It shall not only be overcome but rendered subservient to thy glory. Man with his breath of threatening is but blowing the trumpet of the Lord?s eternal fame. Furious winds often drive vessels the more swiftly into port. The devil blows the fire and melts the iron, and then the Lord fashions it for his own purposes. Let men and devils rage as they may, they cannot do otherwise than subserve the divine purposes. (CHS)

January 5, 2001

From hand written notes, 9/23/86

V. 5, and he was accepted in the sight of all the people (and Saul's servants…

David went out whithersoever Saul sent him.

16:18, this is the kind of man Saul wanted around him – one who was:

a) a man of war
b) mighty valiant man, known for his strength and efficiency. Are we willing to go wherever our King might send us or must He meet our conditions before we go?

Behaved himself wisely – prudent, attentive, understanding, clever.
How wisely do we behave in the situations we find ourselves?

Saul searched the kingdom (ch. 16) for this kind of a man to make up for his own weakness. Now he has him, the people love him, and Saul fears him.

V. 6, David returned from the slaughter...

Saul should have been returning, but the battle found him sitting afraid in his tent on the battlefield. 17;11. We have no record of Saul leading a slaughter against the Philistines.

V. 8, Saul was very wroth...

He should have been rejoicing that the victory had been won, instead of envy of David. (V. 9.) How like us — God gives a victory to someone, and instead of rejoicing, we are jealous. What runs through our inner most being at the reprot of someone's victory?

So far:

1. 14:2, Saul sitting under the pomegranate tree when he should have been out fighting.
2. 15:17, Saul refuses to submit to the Lord, and repent of sin.
God's spirit leaves him over his disobedience and pride, and goes to David.
3. Saul sits in his tent on the battle field in fear, 17:11.
4. Saul allows the spirit of envy to take charge, 18:9.

Result of this evil spirit is that Saul prophesied in the midst of the house (v. 10), and Saul cast his javelin at David, v. 11.

Prophesied — Saul here is in a state of frenzy. He lost control of his emotions. He came under a powerful evil influence at the opposite extreme of coming under the Godly influence that causes people to prophecy about Christ.

So we see:

No ones fault but Saul's that he lost the kingdom, but rather than accept the blame, he blames David, the very man he searched the kingdom to find. Who do we blame when we lose or miss God's best for us?

V. 13, Saul is the one who puts David in the place he can win away the heart of the people. Saul knew the Lord was with David, 16:18.

V. 16, Saul could have won the people to himself if he had gone out and come in before them instead of letting David fight his battles.