February 22, 2001
I lost my recent file, so this was a back up file, about 30 days old. But during that time, I met Bettie, who I later married, so I did not spend much more time in this file.

1 Samuel 22

David gets away from the men of Gath, and settles in the cave of Adullam, located only about 2 miles south of where David killed Goliath. It was only 13 miles from Bethlehem (see my notes in ch. 17), so was in the land belonging to Judah. Here men start gathering to him.

Vv. 1-5

His brothers came to him, probably for safety. With Saul motivated by anger and jealousy, desiring to kill David thinking David's death will secure the kingdom for his son, if he was not already, he will soon take out after David's family. So they came to David for mutual comfort and protection. They had to know that he was anointed as king, though they did not act like it when he showed up on the battle field against Goliath.

The same warning is given concerning the Son of David: He told us that we will be hated for His sake, and suffer persecution. (Mat. 24:9, John 15:18ff., 1 Jn. 3:13, &c.)

Not only did his brothers come to him, but all who were in distress, debt, and discontented united with him, as said Christ:

Matthew 11:28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.

Every one who was discontent with the way things were under Saul. These were not rebels joining a rebel against the king. These were people who wanted better than what Saul was giving to them.

John 6:65 And he said, Therefore said I unto you, that no man can come unto me, except it were given unto him of my Father.

It is the Spirit who must make one discontent with the wickedness in which the whole world lieth, 1 John 5:19. We come to Christ as our Captain not as rebels against the world, but as servants wanting what the world cannot provide, peace with God and assurance of our hope.

David became their captain, as Christ becomes the Captain of the Lord's army—that is, of those who have answered the call to come to Him.

The crowd I used to "hang" with was made up of people discontent with the wickedness in the world. However, I found that they primarily came among the Christian fellowship as rebels, not as servants. They appeared to me not to come wanting a better principle, but came because they wanted to unite with others who were against the ‘establishment,' rather than seeking others who wanted a better Master, Christ.

Let me mention that the Lord is called the captain of our salvation, which identifies Him as the author and source of our salvation. (Heb. 2:10.) However, when we think of captain, we think of an army that is under the orders of its leader. And thus Christ identified Himself to Joshua as captain of the host of the LORD, 5:14. Accordingly, Christ is far more than simply Saviour; He is the Captain of an army that is to be on the move against hell itself, Matthew 16:18.

David then went on to Mizpeh of Moab, where he sought protection from any evil effort of Saul for his parents. They would have been old by now, and did not need to be on the run with him. David's father's grandmother was Ruth, the Moabitess, so the king of Moab might have had an interest in protecting his parents.

Till I know what God will do for me. Here is a good statement for all of us who might be in ‘limbo,' i.e., feeling lost, neglected or forgotten. David did not know what the Lord had for him, but he knew he had to care for his parents. So he leaves them off here with the king of Moab until the end works out for him.

We all have times when we feel like we are forgotten or neglected of the Lord. David, however, sets us a good example—do what is required of us, e.g., care for his parents, and then do the best we can with where He has us. We must continue on where the Lord has us, till I know what God will do with for me.

Note the word for me, not to me. David fully expects the Lord to work for his benefit.

February 22, 2001, what the Lord will do with me, is anyone's guess right now, but I know He will do it for my benefit, which is the only hope any of us have.

David goes back to his hold, the cave of Adullam, leaving his parents in the save keeping of the king of Moab. Note that it is sad that David's parents were safer with a pagan king than they were in among God's people. Which is the very problem Christ had.

Zechariah 13:6 And one shall say unto him, What are these wounds in thine hands? Then he shall answer, Those with which I was wounded in the house of my friends.

Now the prophet Gad speaks up. My question here is, "How long had Gad been with David?" Why did Gad not speak up about the lies David told up to this point? Maybe, as some say, Gad just now joined with David, which could be.

Gad tells David to get out of hiding, and on into the open land of Judah. And he did.


1) David needed to be out where he could be of use to God and to man. Hiding away in a cave did no one any good. This borders on being a rebuke against those who try to hide away from the world, as some I know tried to do for Y2K.

2) Gad spoke, and David listened. Though anointed king over God's people and writing many Psalms at this time in his life, he did not get so lifted up that he would not listen to others.


Vv. 6-21

With great distress, Saul heard of David's location, and of the men who had gathered with him. The Spirit makes a point of mentioning that Saul was under a tree when he heard this distressing news. This is the second time it is mentioned that Saul was under a tree, 14:2, 22:6.

[v. 6] Oriental princes frequently sit with their court under some shady canopy in the open air. A spear was the early scepter. (JFB)

However, Saul is the only one mentioned in Scripture as being under a tree. I do not know the significance of this unique statement about Saul, nor if it is significant.

His servants were gathered around him, ready to do his bidding. He said to them, "How can you be so unconcerned that David is still alive and free? Don't you know that he will not put you in places of prominence and make you wealthy as I have done. We are Benjamites, and he is not."


1) Saul literally fulfilled Samuel's warning, as he used his authority to enrich his friends in property and honour, chapter 8:11ff.

2) The statement of v. 7 implies that Saul misused his power to "confiscate" property for his friends in the name of the greater good of the state; this could be a reason so many discontented gathered themselves unto him. It was of the king's doings that the men united to David. See note on v. 2.

3) Saul appealed to his servants' greed in his attempt to get the servants to help him get rid of the threat to his place of power—"If David becomes king, you will lose all I have given you." And thus he bought their service.

4) Ye Benjamites... Saul sought to use tribal rivalry, class warfare, national pride (patriotism) and greed to persuade these men to join him in his efforts against David. He was willing to do anything to persuade men to follow him against David, as he sought David's life.

"You have all conspired against me" he charged. He leveled the charge because the servants were not as anxious to destroy David as he was in his madness. He saw their failure to have his attitude toward David as being against him.

I have met and know people today who are the same. Because another does not have the same passion against or for something they are for or against, they feel that other person is against them personally.

In fact, we all get caught in that trap, if we are not careful. We believe that if others don't have our passions concerning something, they are against us, when that is not the case at all. God has given each of us different areas of concerns and gifts.

V. 8, why aren't you sorry for me? he cries. They were probably sorry for David.

His madness and jealousy caused him to believe that everyone was against him, including his own son. His madness and jealousy caused him to believe lies. Jonathan's leaving the table after Saul tried to kill him was probably still on his mind, and Jonathan had no doubt avoided his father since that event.

Note: "Why has no one shown me that my son has joined with David?" Back in 18:1, Jonathan had given his robe, his garments and his weapons of war, so Saul knew full well the relationship between Jonathan and David. Thus Saul is simply wanting to blame someone for Jonathan's uniting to David.

V. 9, Doeg saw Saul's unholy distress as an opportunity to advance in Saul's favour (from being over his herdsmen, TRAPP), and maybe he too could get some of the property and authority from Saul as mentioned in v. 7. So Doeg speaks up, and tells what he saw.

He is no better than a slanderer, who uttereth the truth, not for any love of it, nor for respect to justice, nor for the bettering of the hearer or the delinquent, but only to disgrace the one and to incense the other. (Trapp)

And thus even telling the truth can be wrong, e.g., Doeg slandered David with the truth, for the truth was told with personal motives of self-advancement, and with the intent to help Saul against David.

Note here the comparison between David lying out of self-defense and Doeg telling the truth out of self-motivation. Which man was wrong? Were they both wrong?

V. 9, Doeg fingered Ahimelech, the son of Ahitub as siding with David against the king. And thus the charge of treason was leveled against the priest Ahimelech. The king thus calls Ahimelech and all his household to come before him and answer the charge of attempting to overthrown Saul and king in favor of David. Ahimelech answers the king that he knew nothing of the conflict between David and the king when he did what David asked him to do, so he could not be guilty of treason.

V. 13, conspired... Conspiracy is an open ended charge that can be leveled against about anyone by the state. Here it was simply the desire others to have a better, more just rule in the nation was considered conspiracy. The state commonly uses this charge against anyone it sees as a threat to its power, particularly if the power is being misused.

Ahimelech even defends David, telling Saul that David had been and was still a faithful servant. Evidently, Ahimelech spoke with a boldness that others could not speak with, for he was the high priest, and those with him were the family of a priest. And normally, priests are respected by the leaders of a country.

Saul is not appeased; in fact, he is more incensed, so he commands his servants to kill the priest and all his family. Saul's servants

V. 16, but tyranny, or the tyrant, cannot be answered in any appeasing way, no matter how innocent the one being charged might be. So Saul sentences Ahimelech and all his father's house to death—"This was the worst act that ever Saul did, saith Theoderet..." (Trapp)

Saul's charge against the priest and his house was that he knowingly united with David, who the state had charged with rebellion. And thus the madman, Saul, tried to give an appearance of acting lawfully.

V. 17, Saul gave the order to his servants to kill all the priests and their families, but they refused to carry out the order. It is commendable that they refused to carry out the order, but why did not they speak up in defence of David as Ahimelech had done?

Back in 18:5, the servants "accepted" David. However, it appears that the servants were only following their master's lead, for now they fail to speak up for David.

V. 18, the servants would not do this wicked deed, so Saul told Doeg to do it, which he did. As I mentioned in v. 9, Doeg saw Saul's unholy distress as an opportunity to advance in Saul's favour, so he carries out the command. Note Psalms 52 is David's prayer during this time when Doeg killed the priests. It would be interesting to know of Doeg's end, but the Spirit did not see fit to show that end.

V. 19, Doeg killed 85 priests that day. He then went to the city where these priests lived, Nob, and destroyed it. Josephus says that 385 persons were killed when this city was destroyed.

Note here that Saul killed everything, something he failed to do in obedience to God's command when he went to war against the Amalekites, 15:19ff., which cost him the kingdom.

Observe the zeal that people can have for evil and wickedness, but the total lack of zeal for the Lord's work, even the same person.

Vv. 20-23

Abiathar, one of the priests, escaped to David, bringing with him an ephod, 23:6, by which David could enquire of the Lord.

He also brought the report of what Saul had done to all of the priests and their families. David was distressed, saying that he knew what Doeg would tell Saul when he saw the priest give the bread to him.

David knew Doeg well enough to know what he would do with the information, and accepts the blame for the death of the families. Thus David should have not been so open with asking for the priest's help when he saw Doeg; he should have used some wisdom, and waited for Doeg to leave, or at least spoken with the priest in secret, so Doeg could not know what was going on.

Rather than fret about what happened in the past, David offered safety to the one who escaped, and Abiathar became an asset to him.

There is an important point here worth developing—that is, the death of Ahimelech the priest, and all his father's house, as well as the destruction of the city. In all his evil intentions and deeds, Saul fulfilled prophecy:

[The priest who helped David] Ahimelech

Brother of the king, the son of Ahitub and father of Abiathar #1Sa 22:20-23 He descended from Eli in the line of Ithamar. In #1Ch 18:16 he is called Abimelech, and is probably the same as Ahiah #1Sa 14:3,18 He was the twelfth high priest, and officiated at Nob, where he was visited by David (to whom and his companions he gave five loaves of the showbread) when he fled from Saul #1Sa 21:1-9 He was summoned into Saul's presence, and accused, on the information of Doeg the Edomite, of disloyalty because of his kindness to David; whereupon the king commanded that he, with the other priests who stood beside him (86 in all), should be put to death. This sentence was carried into execution by Doeg in the most cruel manner #1Sa 22:9-23 Possibly Abiathar had a son also called Ahimelech. (Eaton Bible Dictionary)

[The priest who escaped Saul's sword and fled to David] Abiathar

Father of abundance, or my father excels, the son of Ahimelech the high priest. He was the tenth high priest, and the fourth in descent from Eli. When his father was slain with the priests of Nob, he escaped, and bearing with him the ephod, he joined David, who was then in the cave of Adullam #1Sa 22:20-23 23:6 He remained with David, and became priest of the party of which he was the leader #1Sa 30:7

When David ascended the throne of Judah, Abiathar was appointed high priest #1Ch 15:11 1Ki 2:26 and the "king's companion" #1Ch 27:34 Meanwhile Zadok, of the house of Eleazar, had been made high priest. These appointments continued in force till the end of David's reign #1Ki 4:4 Abiathar was deposed (the sole historical instance of the deposition of a high priest) and banished to his home at Anathoth by Solomon, because he took part in the attempt to raise Adonijah to the throne. The priesthood thus passed from the house of Ithamar #1Sa 2:30-36 1Ki 1:19 2:26,27 Zadok now became sole high priest.

In #Mr 2:26 reference is made to an occurrence in "the days of Abiathar the high priest." But from #1Sa 22:1ff. we learn explicitly that this event took place when Ahimelech, the father of Abiathar, was high priest. The apparent discrepancy is satisfactorily explained by interpreting the words in Mark as referring to the life-time of Abiathar, and not to the term of his holding the office of high priest. It is not implied in Mark that he was actual high priest at the time referred to. Others, however, think that the loaves belonged to Abiathar, who was at that time #Le 24:9 a priest, and that he either himself gave them to David, or persuaded his father to give them. (Ibid.)


1 Samuel 2:27 ¶ And there came a man of God unto Eli, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Did I plainly appear unto the house of thy father, when they were in Egypt in Pharaoh's house? 28 And did I choose him out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest, to offer upon mine altar, to burn incense, to wear an ephod before me? and did I give unto the house of thy father all the offerings made by fire of the children of Israel? 29 Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice and at mine offering, which I have commanded in my habitation; and honourest thy sons above me, to make yourselves fat with the chiefest of all the offerings of Israel my people? 30 Wherefore the LORD God of Israel saith, I said indeed that thy house, and the house of thy father, should walk before me for ever: but now the LORD saith, Be it far from me; for them that honour me I will honour, and they that despise me shall be lightly esteemed. 31 Behold, the days come, that I will cut off thine arm, and the arm of thy father's house, that there shall not be an old man in thine house. 32 And thou shalt see an enemy in my habitation, in all the wealth which God shall give Israel: and there shall not be an old man in thine house for ever. 33 And the man of thine, whom I shall not cut off from mine altar, shall be to consume thine eyes, and to grieve thine heart: and all the increase of thine house shall die in the flower of their age. 34 And this shall be a sign unto thee, that shall come upon thy two sons, on Hophni and Phinehas; in one day they shall die both of them. 35 And I will raise me up a faithful priest, that shall do according to that which is in mine heart and in my mind: and I will build him a sure house; and he shall walk before mine anointed for ever. 36 And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left in thine house shall come and crouch to him for a piece of silver and a morsel of bread, and shall say, Put me, I pray thee, into one of the priests' offices, that I may eat a piece of bread.

1 Samuel 3:11 And the LORD said to Samuel, Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, at which both the ears of every one that heareth it shall tingle. 12 In that day I will perform against Eli all things which I have spoken concerning his house: when I begin, I will also make an end. 13 For I have told him that I will judge his house for ever for the iniquity which he knoweth; because his sons made themselves vile, and he restrained them not. 14 And therefore I have sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli's house shall not be purged with sacrifice nor offering for ever.

(See my notes in 1 Samuel 2:29ff & 1 Samuel 3:11ff.)

These were strong words spoken against Eli's house. The judgment began when Eli's two sons were killed, and the judgment ended when Solomon deposed the last of Eli's line, Abiathar, from the priesthood, well over 40 years after Anathoth came to David.

And thus we have some serious points:

Eli's sin seemed little; he honoured his sons over the Lord—that is, for fear of offending them or maybe from the fear of losing them, I suppose, he failed to rebuke their evil actions by doing what he could to put a stop to them. God said the results would begin, and they did with the two son's death, and then Eli's death. The judgment withheld for many years, until David goes to Ahimelech for help. Ahimelech did the right thing, and helped David, but Saul saw that help as treason against the state, so he killed Ahimelech, and destroyed all the line of Eli. But one escaped, Abiathar. Abiathar stayed with David, became a very close friend, and became the high priest. However, after David's death, Abiathar sided against Solomon, and Solomon removed him from the priesthood. And thus the priesthood passed entirely from the line of Eli. The entire process from the time of God's words against Eli to the time when the last descendants was removed, was probably 50-60 years, when God made an end to Eli's line.

In that line were at least two godly men, Ahimelech and Abiathar. Yet these men and their families had to pay a terrible price for Eli's seemingly small sin of not doing what he could to bring his boys under control.

Note these facts that are impossible to understand:

1) Saul moved in his madness, and destroyed Ahimelech and all his father's house. And thus he fulfilled God's plan.

2) Abiathar joined in the rebellion against Solomon and was severely punished. And thus Solomon fulfilled God's plan.

Again, God's word is proved:

Psalms 76:10 Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee: the remainder of wrath shalt thou restrain.

I sure don't know how it works, but it does.

Ss class starting, March 4, 2001.


3) God did not change His mind concerning the curse against Eli. But what about us—does this mean that we must pay the price for our parents sin?

See ON Covenant in "various" sub directory.

Hebrews 10:1-18

The Spirit here refers back to the promise of Jeremiah 31:27-34. (And Jeremiah 33:1-9. Again, I can raise more questions than I can answer.) Jeremiah's promises were given to the Hebrews who were in Babylonian captivity, and his promises looked forward to the freedom from Babylon and resettlement in Palestine, and to the premises in Christ Jesus.

Jeremiah 31:27-34 is quoted twice in the New Testament, showing us that this is a summary of the covenant of grace made with believers in Christ Jesus, Hebrews 8:8, 9, and Hebrews 10:1-18.

First, Jeremiah 31:27, prophecies that the day will come, and that day is the day of the Gospel Church, which is built upon the work and words of Jesus Christ. In that day, there will be a mighty increase in the seed of Abraham.

The promise is a reminder of the promise given to Abraham, Genesis 15:16. (Note the land promised to Abraham and his seed is the world, Romans 4:13.) The promised Seed was Christ, Galatians 3:16-29. And thus the covenant is made here in Jeremiah with the Gospel Church, Galatians 6:16, or the spiritual seed of believing Abraham.

Just as Judah and Israel, that had been two separate kingdoms, were united after their return from Babylon captivity, so were the Jews and Gentiles united in the Gospel Church under the new covenant.

Second, vv. 29, 30, the wicked were complaining against God, saying that because of their fathers' sins, they were now exiles born in Babylon. The promise is that the day is coming when the suffering for the fathers' sins in national captivity in Babylon will come to an end. Though the national captivity will end, they as individuals will not be free from the results of individual sin. In those days—that is, the days of Christ. In other words, v. 29 prophecies of day that was to come in Christ when each person will be held responsible for his own sin.

V. 29, In those days they shall say no more implies that before Christ, the children paid a much higher price for the parents' sins than is common after Christ.

NOTE that sooner or latter the "sweetness" of sin will be turned into "sour grapes."

Note–it rains on the just and the unjust, so both the righteous and unrighteous must suffer the natural consequences for the sins of society. In other words, God promised to withhold rain in its season from the people who rebel against Him, Deuteronomy 28. He also promised tyrannical civil government against the people who reject His just government, Judges 8.

However, on individual level, we can enjoy God's blessings regardless of how our fathers acted, BECAUSE OF CHRIST. A promise of the new covenant is that His blood breaks the bondage of our parents' sins, 1 Peter 1:19. That bondage was broken by the blood of Christ, so it could not be broken until after Christ.

Third, Jeremiah 31:32, this is a New covenant, which is clearly unlike the Old covenant given at the Mount. The New promised a new heart, an obvious reference to the new heart in conversion, Ezekiel 11:19, 36:26, 2 Corinthians 3:3.

Old vs. New

Certainly, under the Old covenant, people were saved by repentance and faith, same as under the New covenant. Under the Old, they had to look by faith to the Messiah to come, whose shed blood was typified in the required sacrifices. (Exodus 24:7, 8.)

But all of those things were only dark shadows and mysteries of what was to come in Christ. The New covenant contains primarily spiritual blessings, though we must not discount the physical blessings promised us in Christ. Under the New covenant, God writes His laws in the minds and hearts of His people, so that they willingly follow Him. Hebrews 8:9.

Under the Old covenant, God had to take His people by the hand, and lead them every step of the way, Jeremiah 31:32. Under the New, His people willingly follow Him.

Under the Old, God dwelt in a tent and latter in the temple. Under the New, God dwells in the temple made without hands—in His people.

Under the Old, God the Father had to be worshiped in a central location. Under the New, God the Father is worshiped anywhere through the Spirit through Christ.

Under the Old, only a few knew and worshiped the Father, and that knowledge and worship was through the very restricted Hebrew manner of worship, and the proper worship could only be done in the land of Judah.

Under the New, the knowledge and worship of the Father is opened up to all men everywhere, as God calls them by His Sovereign Grace.

And the implication here is that UNDER THE OLD, individual children paid the price for the fathers' sins. But UNDER THE NEW, there can be a breaking of that hold of sin from father to son through the blood of Christ.

The basic difference between the Old and the New covenants is this—though they were both grounded in Christ Jesus, the New has the person and blood of Christ and the abundant grace of the Holy Spirit as given to His Church under the gospel.

NOTE that God's laws are the same under both covenants, with the exception of the sacrifices that pointed to Christ. There is no hint that the law of the old covenant, the Ten Commandments, changed under the new covenant. Compare Jeremiah 31:33, I will put my laws in their inward parts... with Hebrews 8:10, I will put my laws into their mind... The same external law of the Old is not internal under the New.

Note the blinded minds and hearts under the old covenant, with the blinders removed under the new, 2 Corinthians 3:14.

Let me mention that Adam was created under a covenant of works—if he keep perfectly the command-word of God, he would be saved. He did not, so he moved from a covenant of works to a covenant of grace. That is to say, the faith given man by God's grace allows him to trust in the perfect work of the second Adam, Christ Jesus. And thus the fallen sons of Adam enter into His work for them, and he suffers the penalty of missing the mark (less than perfect work) for His people. (Isa. 53.) He fulfills the conditions of the covenant of works for us, and we are brought into His covenant by a work of the Holy Spirit. (Christ is the covenant, Isa. 42:6, 49:8.)

Fourth, v. 33, the promise is to give a new heart; the promise is not to give then a physical land. The promise is that He will be their God, and they will be His people, Hebrews 11:6, Revelation 21;3. And we are made His people by the grace of His power.

Fourth, v. 34, the promise is that in that day, He will remember their sin no more. The term remember their sins no more is only used three times in the Scripture, and all three deal with the New covenant in Christ. Hebrews 8:12, 10:17.

Because of Christ, God the Father is ready to comfort those who repent of and turn from their sins, v. 28. Because of Christ, He watches over His people for good, where before Christ, He watched over them, to pluck up, and to break down, and to throw down, and to destroy, and to afflict.

Fifth, Jeremiah 31:34 might be understood as the Spirit of God working from the inside to bring people to the knowledge of Christ, where under the Old, He worked from the outside and through others. However, we are clearly told that it is through the preaching of the gospel that the lost are brought to Christ. But salvation is of the Lord, so He must work from the inside:

John 6:45 It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.
1 Corinthians 2:10 But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.
1 John 2:20 ¶ But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things.


Romans 11:33 O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! 34 For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor? 35 Or who hath first given to him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again? 36 For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen.


Concerning Eli: God did not change His mind concerning the curse. Does that mean that we must pay the price for our parents sin?

The weight of Scripture says that under the New covenant established by and in Christ, His blood frees us from the individual curse of the sins of our fathers, 1 Peter 1:19. However, on the national level, it is obvious that Deuteronomy 28 and 1 Samuel 8 are still very much in effect.