On-Line Bible Lessons

Deuteronomy Lesson Introduction 2


Pastor Ovid Need


NOTE: Time requires I leave in the minor errors, e.g., abbreviations in text, wrong abbreviations, mixed tenses in a sentence (though I have tried to catch all of them), caps, etc. As time progresses, we will correct the lessons. There are also some comments at the end of this chapter.

When placing in your answers for each question in the space provided, put ANS: before each answer. Capitalize, ANS:


Lesson Int-2

NOTE: Time requires I leave in the minor errors, e.g., abbreviations in text, wrong abbreviations, mixed tenses in a sentence (though I have tried to catch all of them), caps, etc. As time progresses, we will correct the lessons. Check comments at end of the lesson.

When placing in your answers for each question in the space provided, put ANS: before each answer. Capitalize, ANS:

DEUTERONOMY — Introduction 2

In this lesson, we will lay a foundation for the study.

1. Why did these things recorded in the Old Testament happen to these people, and why are they written down. (Rom. 15:4; 1 Cor. 10:1-11; Gal. 4:24)?



(1) Note especially 1 Corinthians 10:1-11. Who is 1 Corinthians written to, 1:1-2; 6:11, 20?



(2) Who is referred to by the word "our", 1 Corinthians 10:1?



(3) Who is referred to by the word "fathers", 10:1; Galatians 3:29? (The ancestors, forefathers, founders of a tribe, race.)



(4) Compare scripture with scripture. Who is the Rock of I Corinthians 10:4? Compare with Deuteronomy 32:4, 18, 30?




Fathers — The ancestors, forefathers, founders of a race, tribe or nation. A very good illustration would be the fathers who founded the USA. We are not related to them physically, but we share a common belief, goal and heritage. They are the ones who were at the fountain-head of this nation. The fathers of 10:1 could easily be used in the same sense as we use the fathers of this nation. We are reminded of their example, dedication and beliefs. Our fathers landed in America seeking FREEDOM to worship God and serve Him. We are not related to them, yet they are still our "fathers".

2. What is another name for these people of God here in the wilderness, Acts 7:37-38?



The word congregation and are both used to describe the people of God in many cases.

a. What is the Greek word used for a Christian assembly of the Lord in James 2:2?




3. Who has replaced the OT "holy people" who the Lord God chose to be a special people unto himself, Ex. 19:5, 6; Deut. 7:6; 1 Pet. 2:9-11 (Rom. 11)?





4. From the usages of the many passages by Peter, Paul and John, what is the application, or who has fallen heir to the covenant mentioned in Deuteronomy 7:6; 29:9-13 (i.e., the basic precepts as outlined here? Compare Ex. 19:5-6 and 1 Pet. 2:5-9; Titus 2:14; Rev. 20:6; 1 Thess. 5:27; Gal. 3:13-29; 4:24-31.)?





A. To whom does Paul apply the covenant in Hebrews, chapter 8 and chapter 10?





B. How was the old covenant sealed, Hebrews 9:13?




The New?




If the people listed above have fallen heir to the covenant, they have also fallen heir to the conditions of the covenant, the laws and precepts as revealed in Deuteronomy. We will see more of this as we go along.(See lessons 7-2, 3)


A covenant nation was established with Abraham and passed down by faith. It was further established at Hebron, Sinai. It was passed on down, as we see above. All who are in this covenant by faith in Christ have a common heritage. We have common fathers, starting with Abraham, when we are placed in Christ by the Holy Spirit. (Gal. 3:29. See Gal. 3:8.) Everyone who ever entered into Christ by faith was placed as a seed of Abraham. They were placed in the covenant made with Abraham (Gen. 13:16.) As we read of "the fathers" in scripture, many times it is this reference rather than a physical generation. It usually isn't hard to tell which is being referred to by the context. Another good example of this is Hebrews 3:6, where the Spirit issues a warning to God's people in general, the church, against stubbornness and unbelief.

(See an extensive document by Brother Need, Israel's Identity/Israel's Conversion.)


(1) Barnes' points out that,

A large part of the church at Corinth was Gentile. It could hardly be supposed that they were well informed respecting the ancient history of the Jews. Probably they had read these things in the Old Testament; but they might not have them distinctly in their recollection. Paul brings them distinctly before their minds, as an illustration and an admonition." (Barnes' Notes, I Cor., p 178. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan.)

Corinth was an exceedingly wicked city of its day. "From these causes [mentioned previously in his text], the city of Corinth became eminent among all ancient cities for wealth, and luxury, and dissipation. It was the mart of the world. Wealth flowed into it from all quarters. Luxury, amusement, and dissipation, were the natural consequent, until it became the most gay and dissolute city of its time, --The Paris of Antiquity." (Barnes', IV.)

Paul's exhortation here is to the Jews and Gentiles who were saved out of this corruption. They were in grave danger of taking the same attitude as did their fathers when they came out of Egypt. We have no trouble at all recognizing this destructive attitude in our day. Hodges makes an important point here.

The Israelites doubtless felt, as they stood on the other side of the Red Sea, that all danger was over, and that their entrance into the land of promise was secured. They had however a journey beset with dangers before them, and perished because they thought there was no need of exertion. So the Corinthians, when brought to the knowledge of the gospel, thought heaven secure. Paul reminds them that they had only entered on the way, and would certainly perish unless they exercised constant self-denial."(Hodge, An Exposition of the First Epistle to the Corinthians, p 171. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Mi.)

We certainly see this very commonly today. "I'm saved now. I can go my own way".

(2) Hengstenberg points out this is Paul, a Jew, writing, therefore, is referring to the Jewish believers here and restricting the word "our" to just the "Jewish" race and Paul, a Jew. I believe we can have a broader application both from the context of Scripture and from the meaning of the word "father". See Gal. 3, especially v. 29, as well as Heb. 3:8, 9.

(3) "Abraham is our father, though we are not his natural descendants. The Israelites were the fathers of the Corinthian Christians, although most of them were Gentiles (Hodges)."

This view of Hodges concerning the fathers is certainly consistent with the meaning of this word. (The New Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon of the NT [AP & A, Lafayette, IN 47903] gives this definition for fathers, pg. 494-495.

"Nourisher, protector, upholder;--"

"1. prop. i.q. generator or mail ancestor, and either. a. The nearest ancestor: Matt. 2:22; 4:21 sq.; --- etc.; b. A more remote ancestor, the founder of a race or tribe, progenitor of a people, forefather, so Abraham is called, Matt. 3:9; Lk. 1:73; 16:24; Jn. 8:39, 53; Acts 7:2; Rom. 4:1, etc.."

I don't think it is stretching the usage or context at all to say the word fathers here could be those at the fountain head of the Hebrew race from which Christianity sprang. In fact, the congregation of Israel is called "The church in the wilderness, Acts 7:38." These things happened to them for examples to us who are the heirs of salvation.

Meyer's points out here for I Cor. 10:1 "--The warnings supplied by the history of our fathers urge us to this self-conquest (vv. 1-11). --- The idea of the spiritual fatherhood of all believers (Rom. IV. 11 ff., deWette, al.), or that the OT ancestry of the NT church (Hofmann), would suit only with holy ancestors as being the true Israel (comp. Rom. IX 5 ff.; Gal. VI. 16), but does not harmonize with the fact of the fathers here referred to being cited as warning. [Greek word] has strong emphasis, and is four times repeated, the coming contrast of [Greek word], ver. 5, being already before the apostle's mind. [Greek word]" (Meyer's Commentary on the NT, Vol. VI, p 218. Publications, Box 655, Winona Lake, In. 46950 Reprint of the 1883 edition.)

Therefore, seemingly, the consistent view of I Cor. 10:1 (Heb. 3:9) is that Paul, as a Jew talking to Jews, is using the Jew's ancestry to warn not only the Jews of the results of unbelief, but also the Gentile believers. Of course, the warning today is to all who read his words. Paul is pointing out that even though all who came out of Egypt enjoyed the deliverance and provision of God (blessings), yet this deliverance by God DID NOT exempt them from the results of hardness, disobedience and even presumption and unbelief, Heb., chp. 3.

The warning is to all who name the name of Christ. Their past deliverance and blessings from God will not exempt them from the wrath, judgment or chastening of God for their indifference toward Him. It will not exempt His people today anymore than it did these Jewish fathers of old. Let us look, read and take heed to the warning.

(4) This would show us that the same principles still hold true for today. Barnes' points out here that

The design of the apostle is apparent. It is to show to the Corinthians, who relied so much on their privileges, and felt themselves so secure, that the Jews had the very same privileges -- had the highest tokens of the divine favor and protection, were under the guidance and grace of God, and were partakers constantly of that which adumbrated or typified the Messiah, in a manner as real, and in a form as much fitted to keep up the remembrance of their dependence, as even the bread and wine in the Lord's supper. (p 183.)

This would encourage the view that "our" is a reference to all believers and "fathers" would refer to "the fountain head of Christianity". The warning by Paul is that the church in the wilderness had all of the benefits which the NT church has, yet, they did not avoid the results of sin. All of this passage in 1 Cor. 10 confirm this.

3. See Keil, Second Book of Moses, pg. 95-101 (Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Michigan).

Though we will develop this later, as an introduction, notice the emphasis Paul places upon the word seed in Gal. 3:16. He wants us to understand that the promise made to Abraham is fulfilled only in Christ.


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